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FROM SOIL TO SOIL: EFFECTS OF TREATED SEWAGE SLUDGE APPLICATIONS ON HEAVY METAL CONTENTS OF CORN AND SECOND CROP WHEAT GRAINS GROWN IN SANDY LOAM SOIL

Сведения об участнике
ФИО
Sezai Delibacak
ФИО (на английском языке)
Sezai Delibacak
Название организации
Ege University Faculty of Agriculture Department of Soil Science and Plant Nutrition Bornova
Информация о докладе
Вид доклада
Постерный доклад
Секция
Биоиндикация и химический анализ в экологическом мониторинге
Название доклада
FROM SOIL TO SOIL: EFFECTS OF TREATED SEWAGE SLUDGE APPLICATIONS ON HEAVY METAL CONTENTS OF CORN AND SECOND CROP WHEAT GRAINS GROWN IN SANDY LOAM SOIL
Соавторы доклада (ФИО, организация, город, страна)
Ali Rıza Ongun, Ege University Faculty of Agriculture Department of Soil Science and Plant Nutrition, Bornova, İzmir, Turkey
Аннотация
Wastes and by-products, which are organic residual from different processes, have beneficial properties when added to soil. When correctly applied, organic residues can restore soil quality, by balancing pH, increasing soil organic matter (OM), enlarging carbon reservoirs, increasing porosity, soil aggregation and water retention capacity, improving fertility and stimulating microbial communities. Thus, amelioration of soil conditions enables vegetation development, increasing productivity. Treated sewage sludge (TSS) is an ultimate product of municipal wastewater treatment plant and highly enriched in OM. The use of sewage sludge in agriculture is one of the most important alternatives. Applying sewage sludge determines the modification of soil physical, chemical and biological characteristics and getting higher yields, as compared to the unfertilized control. The sewage sludge, rich in organic matter and mineral elements for plants, can be a substitute for the fertilization but also a source of heavy metals pollution for soil, when high rates are applied or when it is used for many years on the same field.
In this study, effect of consecutively two years treated sewage sludge (TSS) applications on heavy metal content of corn and second crop wheat grains grown in a sandy loam soil was investigated. The experiment was conducted in the experimental fields of Ege Agricultural Research Institute during 2011-2012 in Menemen-İzmir Turkey. The field study was conducted in 20 plots in a randomized-block design with four replications and five different applications including control, mineral fertilizer, TSS 12.5 t.ha-1; 25.0 t.ha-1; 37.5 t.ha-1 as dry matter. Corn (Zea mays L. var. ZP 737) was the first crop, wheat (Triticum durum L. var. Ege 88) was second crop. The average Cu, Cr, Ni, Pb and Zn concentrations of the corn grains did not increase with consecutively two years TSS applications. But Cu concentration of the second year corn grains increased with consecutively two years TSS applications. Despite these increases all heavy metal concentrations of corn were found under the threshold values for human health. Meanwhile, Cd did not be determined in the corn grains. Cu, Cr, Cd, Ni and Zn concentrations of the wheat grains did not increase with TSS applications. Pb did not be determined in the wheat grains samples. All heavy metal concentrations of corn and wheat grains were found under the threshold values for human health. It is recommended that 37.5 t.ha-1 TSS of İzmir city can be used once in a 2-year period for improving properties of sandy loam soil under Mediterranean climate, which are characterized by low OM content and high pH for corn and wheat growth without having any heavy metal problems.
Ключевые слова
Corn, Heavy metals, Treated sewage sludge, Sandy loam soil, Wheat
Введение
Не заполнено
Методы и материалы
Не заполнено
Полученные результаты
Не заполнено
Заключение
Не заполнено
Цитируемая литература
Не заполнено
Благодарности
We thank the Scientific and Technical Research Council of Turkey (TUBITAK) for financial support (Project no: 108G167).
Название, авторы, резюме (на английском языке)

FROM SOIL TO SOIL: EFFECTS OF TREATED SEWAGE SLUDGE APPLICATIONS ON HEAVY METAL CONTENTS OF CORN AND SECOND CROP WHEAT GRAINS GROWN IN SANDY LOAM SOIL

Sezai DELİBACAK*, Ali Rıza ONGUN

Ege University, Faculty of Agriculture, Department of Soil Science and Plant Nutrition, Bornova İzmir Turkey *Corresponding author: 35b51d91dsezai.delibacak@ege.edu.tr

Abstract

Wastes and by-products, which are organic residual from different processes, have beneficial properties when added to soil. When correctly applied, organic residues can restore soil quality, by balancing pH, increasing soil organic matter (OM), enlarging carbon reservoirs, increasing porosity, soil aggregation and water retention capacity, improving fertility and stimulating microbial communities. Thus, amelioration of soil conditions enables vegetation development, increasing productivity. Treated sewage sludge (TSS) is an ultimate product of municipal wastewater treatment plant and highly enriched in OM. The use of sewage sludge in agriculture is one of the most important alternatives. Applying sewage sludge determines the modification of soil physical, chemical and biological characteristics and getting higher yields, as compared to the unfertilized control. The sewage sludge, rich in organic matter and mineral elements for plants, can be a substitute for the fertilization but also a source of heavy metals pollution for soil, when high rates are applied or when it is used for many years on the same field.

In this study, effect of consecutively two years treated sewage sludge (TSS) applications on heavy metal content of corn and second crop wheat grains grown in a sandy loam soil was investigated. The experiment was conducted in the experimental fields of Ege Agricultural Research Institute during 2011-2012 in Menemen-İzmir Turkey. The field study was conducted in 20 plots in a randomized-block design with four replications and five different applications including control, mineral fertilizer, TSS 12.5 t.ha-1; 25.0 t.ha-1; 37.5 t.ha-1 as dry matter. Corn (Zea mays L. var. ZP 737) was the first crop, wheat (Triticum durum L. var. Ege 88) was second crop. The average Cu, Cr, Ni, Pb and Zn concentrations of the corn grains did not increase with consecutively two years TSS applications. But Cu concentration of the second year corn grains increased with consecutively two years TSS applications. Despite these increases all heavy metal concentrations of corn were found under the threshold values for human health. Meanwhile, Cd did not be determined in the corn grains. Cu, Cr, Cd, Ni and Zn concentrations of the wheat grains did not increase with TSS applications. Pb did not be determined in the wheat grains samples. All heavy metal concentrations of corn and wheat grains were found under the threshold values for human health. It is recommended that 37.5 t.ha-1 TSS of İzmir city can be used once in a 2-year period for improving properties of sandy loam soil under Mediterranean climate, which are characterized by low OM content and high pH for corn and wheat growth without having any heavy metal problems.

Key words: Corn, Heavy metals, Treated sewage sludge, Sandy loam soil, Wheat

Acknowledgements

We thank the Scientific and Technical Research Council of Turkey (TUBITAK) for financial support (Project no: 108G167).