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ANTIBIOTIC RESISTANT PATHOGENS INCREASING NEEDS COMPREHENSIVE ECOTOXICOLOGICAL AND EPIDEMIOLOGICAL APPROACH FOR RISK ASSESSMENT

Сведения об участнике
ФИО
Poromov Artem
ФИО (на английском языке)
Poromov Artem
Название организации
Lomonosov MSU
Информация о докладе
Вид доклада
Постерный доклад
Секция
Методология биодиагностики
Название доклада
ANTIBIOTIC RESISTANT PATHOGENS INCREASING NEEDS COMPREHENSIVE ECOTOXICOLOGICAL AND EPIDEMIOLOGICAL APPROACH FOR RISK ASSESSMENT
Соавторы доклада (ФИО, организация, город, страна)
Kydralieva Kamila (Moscow Aviation Institute, Moscow, Russia); Arthur James (Bharathidasan University, India); Wan-Xi Yang (Zhejiang University, China), Terekhova Vera (Lomonosov MSU, Moscow, Russia)
Аннотация
The unwanted effects of microbial growth have long been controlled through the use of antimicrobials such as antibiotics. Resistance can then reach the environment with the potential of adversely affecting aquatic and terrestrial organisms. Bacteria resistant to antibiotics in the aquatic environments were reported by several researchers in Russia, India and China. Hence, a major objective of molecular level epidemiological investigations can provide reliable and specific information regarding the etiology and mechanism of disease processes for disease prevention. On other hand, nano particles could be effective antimicrobial agents especially against antibiotic resistance pathogens. Nano particles antibiotic properties sould be investigated as well as environmental toxicity.
Ключевые слова
remedial nano particles, antibiotic resistance, pathogens, toxicity, environmental and epidemiological risk
Введение

In recent years, resistance to commercially available antibiotics by pathogens has been increasing at an alarming rate. In the past, the uncontrolled use of pharmaceutical substances in human/ veterinary medicine, and aquaculture have increased the introduction of antibiotics to the aquatic environment (Metcalfe et al., 2003; Dang et al., 2008). The excessive use of antibiotics creates new pressures on natural bacterial strains (Kümmerer, 2004). Many bacterial strains multiply rapidly, with cell cycles of 20–30 minutes at elevated temperatures which enhances their genetic adaptability to survive at any condition (Dang et al., 2006; Dahms, 2014). The traditional epidemiological technique has always been the hallmark approach to demonstrate associations between exposure to hazardous substances like microbes and development of diseases due to ‘antibiotic resistant’ (ABR) strains (Bonassi and Au, 2002).

The quantification of antibiotic resistant microbes and their epidemiological survey on water bodies are an innovative approach to provide firsthand information, and help to improve water quality/ human health. The relationship between the increases of human population size in urban areas causing environmental changes is well known. Human health risks associated with microbial vectors are a serious problem and may increase dramatically in the near future (NSTC, 1995). The most obvious ultimate source of fecal indicator and ABR bacteria to water bodies are humans, animals including wildlife, shorebirds and domestic animals (Gerba, 2000; Meals and Braun, 2006; Dahms, 2014). The occurrence of antibiotic resistant bacteria is also increasing in aquatic environments and the transfer of resistant bacteria (transmission of R-plasmids in less than 1 minute) to humans could occur via water/ food, sewage sludge, and manure (Kümmerer, 2004; Al-Bahry et al., 2009). The improper/ overuse of antibiotics has probably contributed to multiple antibiotic resistances in normal and pathogenic strains. Transmission of R-plasmid determinants may occur in less than 1 minute and antibiotic resistance can spread rapidly among bacteria.

Epidemiological data have been used successfully in risk assessments to help setting drinking/ recreational water standards and the current level of emerging diseases spreading due to ABR strains. When a body of epidemiological studies exists that are of a quantitative design, with minimal bias and containing dose-response data, then regulations can be based directly on the data with little extrapolation and minimal uncertainty. As knowledge of ABR strain/ gene survival in drinking/ recreational water, new epidemiological studies should give knowledge/ awareness to the public and to scientists. Based on the information so far, there is no detailed study on quantifying antibiotic resistance from the study area.

The unwanted effects of microbial growth have long been controlled through the use of antimicrobials such as antibiotics. The resistance gene can be transferred through cell division (vertical) and conjugation (horizontal) (Arvanitodou et al., 1997). Resistance can then reach the environment with the potential of adversely affecting aquatic and terrestrial organisms (Nair et al., 1992; Metcalfe et al., 2003). Bacteria resistant to antibiotics in the aquatic environments were reported by several researchers (Kümmerer, 2004). A major objective of molecular level epidemiological investigations is to provide reliable and specific information regarding the etiology and mechanism of disease processes for disease prevention (Bonassi and Au, 2002; Vignesh et al., 2014).

In Russia, many aquatic environments have been used as a dumping ground for sewage, medicinal, fecal, agricultural, industrial and other waste products as well as intensive nanotechnological industry development. There are very few reports available studying antibiotic presence, antibiotic resistance in aquatic organisms belongings to different ecological niches (Chang et al., 2007), there is not any special directives of antibiotic ecotoxicity evaluation methods and risk assessment.

Методы и материалы
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Полученные результаты
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Заключение
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Цитируемая литература
Al-Bahry SN, Mahmoud IY, Al-Khaifi A, Elshafie AE, Al-Harthy A. Viability of multiple antibiotic resistant bacteria in distribution lines of treated sewage effluent used for irrigation. Water Sci Technol. 2009;60(11):2939-48. doi: 10.2166/wst.2009.687.
Arvanitidou M, Spaia S, Katsinas C, Pangidis P, Constantinidis T, Katsouyannopoulos V, Vayonas G. Microbiological quality of water and dialysate in all haemodialysis centres of Greece. Nephrol Dial Transplant. 1998 Apr;13(4):949-54.
Bonassi S, Au WW.Biomarkers in molecular epidemiology studies for health risk prediction. Mutat Res. 2002 Mar;511(1):73-86.
Chang Y.C.1, Shih D.Y., Wang J.Y., Yang S.S., 2007. Molecular characterization of class 1 integrons and antimicrobial resistance in Aeromonas strains from foodborne outbreak-suspect samples and environmental sources in Taiwan. Diagnoses of Microbiological Infectious Diseases 59(2):191-197.
Dahms, H.-U., 2014. Section 2.1. Traditional microbiological methods. In Biofouling Methods, 1st Edition. Ed. S. Dobretsov, J.C. Thomason and D.N. Williams. John Wiley & Sons, Lt..: 45-51. [Book Chapter].
Dang, H., Zhang, X., Song, L., Chang, Y., Yang, G., 2006. Molecular characterizations of oxytetracycline resistant bacteria and their resistance genes from mariculture waters in China. Mar Poll Bull. 52: 1494–1503.
Gerba CP, Naranjo JE.Microbiological water purification without the use of chemical disinfection. Wilderness Environ Med. 2000 Spring;11(1):12-6.
Kümmerer K.Resistance in the environment. J Antimicrob Chemother. 2004 Aug;54(2):311-20.
Meals DW1, Braun DC. Demonstration of methods to reduce E. coli runoff from dairy manure application sites.J Environ Qual. 2006 May 31;35(4):1088-100.
Metcalfe, C.D., Miao, X.S., Koenig, B.G., Struger, J., 2003. Distribution of acidic and neutral drugs in surface waters near sewage treatment plants in the lower Great Lakes, Canada. Environmental Toxicity and Chemo. 22: 2881–2889.
NSTC, 1995. Setting a new course for U.S. coastal ocean science. National Science and Technology Council, Committee on Environment and Natural Resources, NOAA, Silver Spring. M.D, 111.
Vignesh, S., Dahms, HU., Emmanuel K.V., Santhosh Gokul M., Muthukumar K., and James*, R.A. (2014). “Physicochemical parameters aid microbial community? A case study from marine recreational beaches, southern India”, Environmental Monitoring and Assessment; Vol. 186(3):1875-1887.
Благодарности
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Название, авторы, резюме (на английском языке)

ANTIBIOTIC RESISTANT PATHOGENS INCREASING NEEDS COMPREHENSIVE ECOTOXICOLOGICAL AND EPIDEMIOLOGICAL APPROACH FOR RISK ASSESSMENT

Poromov Artem (Lomonosov MSU, Moscow, Russia); Kydralieva Kamila (Moscow Aviation Institute, Moscow, Russia); Arthur James (Bharathidasan University, India); Wan-Xi Yang (Zhejiang University, China), Terekhova Vera (Lomonosov MSU, Moscow, Russia)

The unwanted effects of microbial growth have long been controlled through the use of antimicrobials such as antibiotics. Resistance can then reach the environment with the potential of adversely affecting aquatic and terrestrial organisms. Bacteria resistant to antibiotics in the aquatic environments were reported by several researchers in Russia, India and China. Hence, a major objective of molecular level epidemiological investigations can provide reliable and specific information regarding the etiology and mechanism of disease processes for disease prevention. On other hand, nano particles could be effective antimicrobial agents especially against antibiotic resistance pathogens. Nano particles antibiotic properties sould be investigated as well as environmental toxicity.