Chemoresistance of lung adenocarcinomas is regulated by Tudor staphylococcal nuclease
Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer-related deaths worldwide. Non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), the major lung cancer subtype, is characterized by high resistance to chemotherapy. Here we demonstrate that Tudor staphylococcal nuclease (SND1 or TSN) is overexpressed in NSCLC cell lines and tissues, and is important for maintaining NSCLC chemoresistance. Downregulation of TSN by RNAi in NSCLC cells led to strong potentiation of cell death in response to cisplatin. Silencing of TSN was accompanied by a significant decrease in S100A11 expression at both mRNA and protein level. Downregulation of S100A11 by RNAi resulted in enhanced sensitivity of NSCLC cells to cisplatin, oxaliplatin and 5-fluouracil. AACOCF3, a phospholipase A2 (PLA2) inhibitor, strongly abrogated chemosensitization upon silencing of S100A11 suggesting that PLA2 inhibition by S100A11 governs the chemoresistance of NSCLC. Moreover, silencing of S100A11 stimulated mitochondrial superoxide production, which was decreased by AACOCF3, as well as N-acetyl-L-cysteine, which also mimicked the effect of PLA2 inhibitor on NSCLC chemosensitization upon S100A11 silencing. Thus, we present the novel TSN-S100A11-PLA2 axis regulating superoxide-dependent apoptosis, triggered by platinum-based chemotherapeutic agents in NSCLC that may be targeted by innovative cancer therapies.