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Defects in antiviral signaling as factors promoting viral oncolysis

Name
Alena
Surname
Sidorenko
Scientific organization
Engelhardt Institute of Molecular Biology
Academic degree
Master of "Applied Mathematics and Physics"
Position
Graduate Researcher
Scientific discipline
Life Sciences & Medicine
Topic
Defects in antiviral signaling as factors promoting viral oncolysis
Abstract
Viral infection leads to the activation of multiple innate antiviral cellular pathways. Cytokines of the type I IFN system possess a wide range of biological activities: they are able to block replication of some viruses and to induce growth inhibitory and/or apoptotic cell signals. Many cancer cells have been demonstrated to possess defects in antiviral signaling pathways that allow them to resist IFN-induced growth-inhibitory and apoptotic signals.
Keywords
cancer, oncolytic virus, interferon
Summary

Although interferon-non-responsive cancer cells may have acquired a growth/survival advantage over other cells, they are more susceptible to viral infections, therefore, they are probably more sensitive to oncolytic virotherapy. 

Our aim was to analyze correlation between defects in antiviral signaling pathway of different cancer cell lines and their susceptibility to oncolytic viruses. We identified ability of cancer cells to respond to treatment with interferon. It was shown that among different groups of cancer exist IFN sensitive and completely resistant cancer cell lines. Then we assessed ability of cancer cells to produce IFN in response to induction with virus. There was also a significant difference between amounts of secreted IFN: some lines exhibited production of IFN on comparable to normal cells level, while others had undetectably low, if any, quantity. We also established correlation between identified defects and susceptibility of cancer cells to oncolytic viruses.