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First climate smart agriculture approaches from results of RusFluxNet monitoring

Name
Alex
Surname
Yaroslavtsev
Scientific organization
RSAU MTAA
Academic degree
Candidate of science
Position
Senior lecturer
Scientific discipline
Earth Sciences, Ecology & Environmental Management
Topic
First climate smart agriculture approaches from results of RusFluxNet monitoring
Abstract
Potential increase in Russia’s cultivated land, climate change and greenhouse gas emissions quotas make climate smart agriculture, as relevant as never before. Carbon budget was calculated at the fields in Moscow, for two agroecosystems with different crops from the same crop rotation studied for 2 years. Values about 200-250 g C m2 per year may be considered as estimated values for the total carbon loss for agroecosystems with grain crops and grass mixt on sod-podzolic soils. The use of mustard as a green manure may reduce this value by three-quarters.
Keywords
eddy covariance, carbon budget, green house gases. climate smart, agriculture
Summary

First climate smart agriculture approaches from results of RusFluxNet monitoring

Yaroslavtsev A.M., Meshalkina Ju.L., Vasenev I.I., R.Valentini.

Laboratory of Agroecological Monitoring, Ecosystem Modeling and Prediction, Russian Timiryazev State Agricultural University (RTSAU), 127550, Timiryazevskaya, 49, Moscow, Russia 

Climate-smart agriculture is an complex approach to solve problems of food shortage and climate change, that definitely should address reducing greenhouse gas emissions from agriculture. Current political and economical situation in Russia with high interest and support to homeland food production can lead to spontaneous growth of agricultural land use.

At the same time, world facing climate change issues, which can lead to further development of quotas for greenhouse gas emissions. Several studies had shown that temperature increase in autumn-spring period leads to an increase in CO 2 emissions. For example, for Finland’s forest with rather similar to Russian climatic conditions (T. Vesala et. al. 2010) carbon loss due to temperature change was estimated as 9 gC m −2 ◦ C −1 . On other hand article of Stolbovoy, 2002, shown that loss of carbon from agricultural ecosystems in Russia, 9 times higher than from forest one’s.

Therefore, potential increase in Russia’s cultivated land, increase in temperatures in autumn-spring period and potential introduction of greenhouse gas emissions quotas make the issue of transition climate smart agriculture, as relevant as never before.

Carbon balance was calculated at the Precision Farming Experimental Fields of the Russian Timiryazev State Agricultural University, Moscow, Russia, for two agroecosystems with different crops from the same crop rotation studied for 2 years. The experimental site has a temperate and continental climate and situated in south taiga zone with Arable Sod-Podzoluvisols (Albeluvisols Umbric). The study was performed under the support of RF Government grant № 11.G34.31.0079

Meteorological and environmental conditions were similar for two towers (A and B) located on two adjacent fields, as expected. Also there were significant different in condition between years. Correlation coefficients between different years and different sites in microclimate measurements data were 0.83-0.99. Climatic features and crop type and phase were main drivers of NEE dynamics. Since both sites were placed on the same soil and climatic conditions were the same there were significant difference in ecosystem’s respiration dynamics (Reco). But there were significant differences between sites in gross plant production due to differences in crops phenology (GPP).

Vertical fluxes of carbon dioxide were measured with eddy covariance technique, statistical method to measure and calculate turbulent fluxes within atmospheric boundary layers. Crop rotation included potato, winter wheat, barley and vetch and oat mix. Two fields of the same crop rotation were studied in 2013-2014. One of the fields (A) was used in 2013 for barley planting (Hordeum vulgare L.). The field B was in 2013 used for planting together vetch (Vicia sativa L.) and oats (Avena sativa L.). Inversely oats and vetch grass mixt was sown in 2014 on field A. Winter wheat was sown on field A in the very beginning of September. On the second field (B) in 2014 winter wheat occurred from under the snow in the phase of tillering, after harvesting it in mid of July, white mustard (Sinapis alba) was sown for green manure.

Carbon uptake (NEE negative values) was registered only for the field with winter wheat and white mustard; because the two crops were cultivated on the field within one growing season. Great difference in 82 g C m -2 per year in NEE between two fields with vetch and oat was related to higher difference in yields. NEE for barley field was positive during the whole year; considering only the growing season, NEE for barley was 100 g C m -2 lower and was negative.

Closed balance for whole years showed that carbon losses were observed for all studied agroecosystems. It was minimal for field with winter wheat, with mustard, used as green manure, and it was maximal for field with vetch and oat mix.

Values about 200-250 g C m2 per year may be considered as estimated values for the total carbon loss for agroecosystems with grain crops and grass mixt on sod-podzolic soils. The use of mustard as a green manure may reduce this value by three-quarters.