Problem of applicant outflow in Zabaikalsky krai
The objectives are as follows:
1. A survey of school-leavers who left Zabaikalsky krai.
2. Study the reasons why the applicants leave Zabaikalsky krai.
3. Question first-year students of Chita State Medical Academy to clarify the reasons for which they decided to study in Chita.
4. Question graduate students to clarify their future plans about staying in Zabaikalsky krai.
5. Carry out comparative analysis of the data to rank the factors influencing the decision of applicants and students to stay or leave Zabaikalsky krai.
6. Compare the data obtained with experts’ ones.
Zabaikalsky krai has been losing its population for years. Only in 2009 more than 20000 people left the region. According to statistical forecasts, outflow of the population will continue till 2030. 57% of the people who leave are successful entrepreneurs, talented doctors and teachers, best engineers and lawyers of our region.
Specialists are convinced that urgent and radical measures are necessary to fix this situation such as creating new workplaces, realization of some big projects which would create comfortable living conditions and desire to stay.
These measures have already resulted in the decrease in the outflow of population but the problem is still urgent for Transbaikal region and especially for Chita universities as applicants leave the region.
Methods and materials. 491 respondents were enrolled in a social survey. They were divided in 4 target groups: applicants, 10-11 grade, first-year students of Chita State Medical Academy, graduates of Chita region schools who entered other region’s universities and undergraduates of Chita State Medical Academy (196). The data obtained were analyzed with comparative methods and validity of the data were assessed by representative deviation method.
Results. The study shows that 24 school leavers left Zabaikalsky krai to get education in St. Petersburg. Moscow, Vladivostok, Irkutsk, Krasnoyarsk, Novosibirsk and Kaliningrad. 90% of the school leavers left the Krai, because to get their specialization in Chita region was impossible. 10% decided to get higher education in other cities due to the possibility to get a more prestigious diploma or possibility to get more promising career choice.
As for the 1st-year students 62,35% (± 3,7) of the student initially wanted to enter the Chita State Medical Academy (ChSMA). However, 14,7% (± 2,7) of the respondents are going to be transferred to another university while at the Academy.
After graduation 52,4% (± 3,8) of the students are planning to move to another city.
The reasons for which the students want to leave, are:
1. The lack of the development of Zabaikalsky krai - 38,24% (± 3,7).
2. The lack of opportunities for career growth - 34,7% (± 3,6).
3. The low level of salaries - 30% (± 3,5).
And now let’s consider the results of the survey in 196 undergraduates. On admission only 50% (± 3,6) of the respondents considered ChSMA as a target university, 49,5% (± 3,6) planned to study in other cities because of poorly developed infrastructure and lack of opportunities to realize their talents. Now, after 5 years of the study, the situation is as follows:
The students who have made a final decision to leave Zabaykalsky Krai:
• 81% (± 6,93) of the dental students;
• 55% of pediatric students (± 6,42);
• And 56,7% (± 4,86) of the medical students.
Our research revealed a direct correspondence between the faculty and the reasons for which the future graduates are going to leave Zabaykalsky Krai.
For the students of the medical faculty (5th year):
1. The low level of salary - 32,7% (± 4,6).
2. Low social-economic level - 30% (± 4,5).
3. Getting further education (residency course) - 25% (± 4,2).
For the students of the pediatric faculty (5th year):
1. Passage of residency - 28% (± 5,79).
2. The low level of salary - 23% (± 5,43).
3. Plan to move due to family circumstances - 18% (± 4,96).
For the students of the dental faculty (the 4th year):
1. For 34% (± 8,37) a major trigger to leave Zabaikalsky krai became a job search.
2. Residency course 28% (± 7,93).
3. The low level of salary for 25% (± 7,65).
63,8% (± 3,4) of the respondents are not going to return to Zabaikalsky krai.
The undergraduates note the following cities:
1. Novosibirsk 45,9% (± 3,6).
2. St. Petersburg 44,4% (± 3,5).
3. Krasnoyarsk 22,9% (± 9).
When we speak about the opinion of the students about the problem of the outflow of the young professionals from Zabaikalsky krai, most of them have a negative attitude.
The students themselves suggest the following steps, which are necessary to stop the massive outflow:
1. Provision of high level of salary - 78,3% (± 4,3).
2. Supporting the city development - 73,9% (± 4,6).
3. Creating a good work environment is important for 71,7% (± 4,7).
2. Ошибка репрезентативности, методика вычисления ошибки средней и относительной величины [Электронный ресурс]. - Доступ: http://uchenie.net/zdrav/ekzamen/1534-116-oshibka-reprezentativnosti-metodika-vychisleniya-oshibki-srednej-i-otnositelnoj-velichiny.html
3. Забайкалье стало вторым среди регионов Сибири по массовому оттоку населения [Электронный ресурс]. - Доступ: https://www.chita.ru/news/77391/