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Медико-экологические аспекты здоровья населения Ханты-Мансийского автономного округа

Сведения об участнике
ФИО
Солтукиева Асет Мовсаровна
Вуз
Федеральное бюджетное государственное образовательное учреждение высшего образования "Чеченский государственный университет"
Тезисы (информация о проекте)
Область наук
Науки о Земле, экология и рациональное природопользование
Раздел области наук
Экология
Тема
Медико-экологические аспекты здоровья населения Ханты-Мансийского автономного округа
Резюме
Ханты-Мансийский автономный округ-Югра (ХМАО) является одной из ведущих сырьевых баз Российской Федерации. Высокие темпы промышленного освоения привели к формированию большого количества городских агломераций, изменивших природный ландшафт и обостривших экологическую ситуацию на территории округа. Негативное воздействие факторов природной среды и продуктов ее трансформации приводит к развитию неблагоприятных последствий в состоянии здоровья населения, что выражается в увеличении смертности, заболеваемости, ухудшении физического развития детей.
Ключевые слова
Ханты-Мансийский автономный округ, экология, климат, здоровье населения
Цели и задачи
Рассмотреть медико-экологические аспекты здоровья населения Ханты-Мансийского автономного округа.
Введение

Ханты-Мансийский автономный округ-Югра (ХМАО) является одной из ведущих сырьевых баз Российской Федерации. Высокие темпы промышленного освоения привели к формированию большого количества городских агломераций, изменивших природный ландшафт и обостривших экологическую ситуацию на территории округа. Негативное воздействие факторов природной среды и продуктов ее трансформации приводит к развитию неблагоприятных последствий в состоянии здоровья населения, что выражается в увеличении смертности, заболеваемости, ухудшении физического развития детей .

 

            

Методы и материалы

В качестве инструментов исследования использовались такие общенаучные методы как: описание, анализ, сравнение, классификация, аналогия, индукция, измерение.

 

Описание и обсуждение результатов

Ханты-Мансийский автономный округ относиться к зоне, где биологические реакции организма могут определяться недостатком кальция, йода, молибдена, бора, магния, фтора. Микроэлементный состав подземных вод на территории округа свидетельствует о практически повсеместном низком уровне меди (до 0,008мг/л), цинка(0,022-0,16мг/л), марганца(0,009-0,15мг/л). Содержание йода колеблется в пределах 0,011- 0,21мг/л, а фтора от 0,05 до 1,44(мг/л)[33].

ХМАО является эндемичным по целому ряду природно-очаговых заболеваний: туляремия, клещевой энцефалит, клещевой системный боррелиоз (болезнь Лайма), гельминтозы (описторхоз, дифиллоботриоз). В округе выявлены устойчивые природные очаги псевдотуберкулеза. В виде групповых вспышек алиментарного характера регистрируется трихинеллез.

Природные условия округа, отличающиеся рядом особенностей, следует учитывать при разработке профилактических мероприятий. Одним из главных вопросов дальнейшего промышленного освоения округа, является охрана экологических характеристик биосферы, которые характеризуются низкой устойчивостью к повреждающим факторам, длительностью и сложностью восстановительного периода. Климат территории в целом характеризуется как неблагоприятный, требующий соответствующей адаптации. Нейтрализовать и компенсировать последствия неблагоприятных воздействий необходимо корригируя метеоусловия, градостроительно - мелиоративными, архитектурно-строительными и инженерно-техническими средствами.

Объем выбросов вредных веществ в атмосферу от всех источников загрязнения в целом по округу, выросло в 1,7 раза. Прежде всего, это связано с активным развитием округа и особенно нефтегазового комплекса. Приоритетными источниками загрязнения являются нефтедобывающая и нефтеперерабатывающая отрасль - 1 место; транспорт - 2 место; строительство -3 место. В структуре выбросов наибольшее значение имеют газообразные вещества: окись углерода, сернистый ангидрид, окислы азота, углеводороды. На их долю приходиться около 95% суммарной эмиссии вредных веществ.

Степень медико-экологического состояния в целом по округу оценивается, как «сильная степень загрязнения». Данные загрязнения атмосферного воздуха по крупным городам округа показывают, что наибольшая загрязненность отмечается в г. Белоярске. В целом населенные пункты ХМАО относятся к территориям, для которых характерен сильный уровень загрязнения атмосферного воздуха.

 

 

Используемые источники
1. Адаптация человека в условиях Ханты-Мансийского автономного округа - Югры / В. С. Соловьев. Ханты-Мансийск: Тип. «Печатное дело», 2010. - 299 с.
2. Беляева Н. Н. Морфологические критерии риска вредного воздействия факторов окружающей среды на организм / Н. Н. Беляева // Гигиена и санитария, 2002. - №6. - С.75-76.
3. Влияние загрязнения вод на здоровье населения индустриального региона Севера / Т. И. Моисеенко // Вод. Ресурсы, 2010. - Т. 37, № 2. - С. 199-208.
4. Влияние климатогеографических факторов, природноочаговых заболеваний и социальнобытовых условий на стоматологическое здоровье коренного населения севера Тюменской области / С. Н. Лебедев// Уральский мед. журн., 2010. - № 8. - С. 5-8.
5. Вопросы сохранения и развития здоровья населения Севера и Сибири : сб. материалов итоговой науч.-практ. конф. (1-2 июня 2010). - Красноярск: НИИ мед. проблем Севера, 2010.


Information about the project
Surname Name
Soltukieva Aset
Project title
Medical and environmental aspects of the health of the population of the Khanty - Mansiysk Autonomous Okrug
Summary of the project
In recent years greatly increased understanding of the role of the environment as the most important factor affecting the health of the population. Human health is closely linked with the "parameters" of the environment, as throughout his life, a person is under the constant influence of different factors (from natural to social).
Due to a change in health status by vozdeystvi¬em environmental factors, no one doubts, however us¬tanovit aimed effect of this impact is not easy. Printsipi¬alnaya complexity of the evaluation is that, as a rule, the research focused on specific factors, then, as the impact of the environment on health regional¬noe certainly has a complex and even synergistic effect. The same factor (eg, "weather", oprede¬lyaemye a number of parameters) can affect different organs (circulatory system, respiratory system, etc.). Impact is able to have iner¬tsionnostyu. Temporary spatial scales of action of any factor or combination of factors that characterize the local (regional) people's living conditions are not the same. In addition, all of the above combined with the complexity and ambiguity reak¬tsii body to any external influence.
According to WHO, about 90% of the modern diseases of mankind directly or indirectly linked with environmental factors. No exception in this regard and the Khanty-Mansi Autonomous Area [6].
Currently, there are a number of fundamental works, confirming the significant effect climatic factors on the state of the nervous and cardiovascular systems, respiratory and digestive, immune, and on the course of metabolic processes [1].
Climatic factors largely determine the characteristics of industrial activity of man and his needs - the type of dwelling, clothing, diet, work and rest, physical performance, as well as regional pathology and predisposition to the emergence of various diseases.
     The Industrial Development now attaches great importance to areas of Siberia, the Far North and the Far East. The intensive development of natural resources, the deployment of territorial - industrial complexes in these regions, strengthening their role in the Russian industrial production entail massive migration of people from more southern areas of the country.
      The study of the interactions of the human body with the environment in terms of the northern region caused by the intensification of its industrial development, is an important issue at the present stage. Harsh climatic conditions in these areas impose on human health, especially to his nervous system, increased requirements [2].
On the timing of the onset of acclimatization in the harsh climatic conditions of the north presented conflicting data in the literature. Complete acclimatization arrived to the north of the middle band begins no earlier than 50 days. According to some reports, for complete adaptation is sometimes not enough of one season and even year. For firmly fixed dynamic stereotype requires long-term calculated many years.
In the process of adaptation, there is a close relationship adaptation process not only physiological parameters of the individual, but also with the constitutional features of a person. It appears certain a correlation between somatic and functional properties of the body, and even with a predisposition to various diseases. [3]
 Significant fluctuations in air temperature, pressure, humidity, movement of air masses, the radiation balance are the main cause meteotropnoy reactions even in people with a good adaptation to the climate of the North. The harsh weather conditions due to turnover intensity of the geomagnetic field of the earth to produce magnetic storms here.
Of great importance in the development of pathological processes attached to this environmental phenomenon, the northern hypoxia and related functional hypertension in the pulmonary circulation and the high content of fetal hemoglobin in healthy people of the North. Diseases in the North are characterized by their clinical features, which bind to the human body reactivity changes that occur in the course of a long stay in the North, that is realized in the clinical features of a number of diseases, especially the respiratory system.
In the formation of various forms of pathology leading role it is caused by the power quality, the cooling effect of the factors that influence the development of pathological processes of the circulatory system, household and industrial intoxication and caused them central and peripheral neuropathy, which can be combined with widespread in certain labor contingents osteochondrosis. Of particular importance in the development of pathological processes and related diseases of the respiratory system, digestive system, skin and mucous given to the phenomena of dysbiosis, which are widespread, both in adults and in children [4].
 The clinical course of a number of somatic diseases that occur as a dissinhrozov, caused by one of the leading socio-demographic factors, the northern regions - migration. The incidence of floating population, especially in the group of entities that related to his mental and psycho-physiological adaptation.
Numerous studies link state of health to the impact of various factors, carried out in our country, and abroad, prove conclusively that environmental pollution has a significant adverse impact on public health, which is reflected in an increase in mortality, morbidity, deterioration of physical development and growth prevalence of premorbid conditions [5].
Analysis of demographic processes in the Khanty showed that the population has been steadily increasing. In 2015, the resident population was 1,612,076 people. This is nearly 40 times greater than it was at the start of the district base.
During the period 2001-2015 year population growth is observed in the neighborhood of the population with low but stable growth rate of 0.25 to 4.6% per year [7].
Despite the increase in population, the county still remains the region with the lowest population density (2.5 person per 1m2).
Most of the population is concentrated in the districts of the city, they accounted for 92% of the population. The largest cities of the county are: Surgut, Nizhnevartovsk, Nefteyugansk. As shown in Table 1 and Figure 1 are the most urbanized of the Khanty-Mansi and the Soviet area; Oktyabrsky district, opposite the majority (51.2%) are in rural areas.
The population for the administrative territorial units, and the proportion of the urban population in the total population of the Khanty-Mansiysk District 2001-2-15gg.
                                                
Table 1
Total number areas tys.naseleniya urban population urban population Specific gravity%
1 Beloyarskii 29.0 19.6 67.6
Berezovsky 2 27.1 16.5 60.9
3 Kondinsky 35.4 23.8 67.2
Nefteyugansk 4 44.0 27.6 62.7
Nizhnevartovsk 5 34.1 26.2 76.8
The October 6 32.4 15.8 48.8
7 Soviet 47.2 44.0 93.2
Surgut 8 112.7 76.4 67.8
Khanty-Mansi 17.3 17.3 100

By district
1478.9 1348.9 91.2

 
Fig.1. The population for the administrative territorial units for KhMAO 2001-2-15g.g.

        gender County Population distribution as follows: 49.7% were men and 50.3% - women.
The share of the population older than 50 years do not exceed 23% in recent years. The median age is 32 years, which is a favorable condition for natural reproduction of the population.
Natural movement along with the mechanical plays a major role in the general population growth region being a determining factor.
The demographic situation in the district as a whole is favorable, he will be among the few areas of the country where preserved natural population is simple.
      The increasing level of development and industrial construction is the foundation for further social and economic development of the region under study, the growth of welfare and improvement of socio-sanitary conditions of the population. In addition, there are negative aspects of industrial development, which will conclude in the pollution of the environment objects (air, water, soil), which, in turn, have a negative impact on the health of the population [7].
       On the territory of the Khanty-Mansiysk District implemented to a certain extent on the environmental measures from contamination. However, to date the results of performance evaluations in respect of hygienic characteristics of the components of the environment and health indicators directly related, show more about the aggravation of the contradictions between the growth of the economic development of the territory and the quality of the environment.
     In this connection there is a need to develop methodological foundations of complex social and ecological-hygienic analysis of the main interdependent factors - Outside water facilities, storage media (soil, snow) and public health. This is the main criterion for health indicators are in the hygienic assessment of objects of the system environment. [8]
           KhMAO is endemic for a variety of natural focal diseases: tularemia, tick-borne encephalitis, tick-borne Lyme system (Lyme disease), helminth infections (opistorhoz, diphyllobothriasis). The district identified sustainable natural foci of pseudotuberculosis [9].
        Tularemia endemic to the whole territory of the district. With the exception of the Soviet area, and tularemia outbreak in the county is the most active type - floodplain marsh. The main reservoir of infection is the water rat, muskrat, vole mouse.
      Sporadic cases of another vector-borne diseases - malaria, registered within the county, do not allow to forget about the fact that the presence of significant amounts of anofelogennyh reservoirs located near these settlements is a potential hazard.
          From prirodnoochagovyh parasitic disease etiology greatest importance in the regional pathology county belongs Opisthorchiasis.
        Among other prirodnoochagovyh invasions having a certain value in the pathology of the population, should be considered diphyllobothriasis. This disease is associated with the consumption of fish infested with larvae diphyllobothriids.
       From zooantroponoznyh infections in the district the highest socio-economic and medical-biological value belongs brucellosis associated with reindeer. The spread of the infection in reindeer farms district is reflected in the incidence of brucellosis both local and alien population has been called to work in the reindeer herding.
       On the territory of the district there are prerequisites for the emergence and existence of other natural focal disease.
         In a group of outbreaks of food character recorded trichinosis. The source of infection is not sufficiently thermally processed meat of a bear. The incidence of disease and death in animals and humans from rabies in the Khanty registered more than 15 years, however, the autonomous district is bordered by the Tyumen region, unfavorable rabies territory. Problems of infectious and invasive disease totally County caused social and economic processes. [10]
       Thus, the natural conditions of the district distinguished by a number of features that should be considered in the development of measures to improve the structure of residential areas.
Keywords
Khanty - Mansi Autonomous Area , the environment , climate, health